In 1988, a small piece of cloth was cut from one of the corners of the Shroud and divided into postage stamp size pieces and given to 3 reputed International labs to do a Carbon Dating Test to determine the age of the Shroud. The results from all 3 labs said that the cloth was dated between the years 1260 and 1390. Later on it was proved that there was an error in the carbon dating dates due to corrupt samples being used. The samples were taken from the corners of the Shroud which had repair threads in it and not being of the same composition as the main body of the Shroud cloth. This was because during the centuries that the shroud was venerated and held by the corners of the shroud, the corners became damaged and it was repaired in the middle ages using a process called invisible weaving or darning using dyed threads available then.
Therefore the simple explanation as to why the Carbon Dating was not accurate, was that the sample on which the carbon dating was done contained foreign threads and was not entirely from the original Shroud material. The Samples submitted for carbon dating were taken out of one of the corners of the Shroud of Turin. The existence of foreign threads in the corners of the Shroud of Turin has now been proven beyond doubt. The late Dr. Raymond (Ray) Rogers of the famous Los Alamos Laboratory in New Mexico, USA played a leading role in establishing this fact. So it was the corrupt samples from the Shroud of Turin that was Radio Carbon dated, thus giving a wrong Carbon dating to the Shroud of Turin.
The following video by The History Channel documentary about the Shroud of Turin is very interesting and towards the end of this long video mention is made about the carbon dating of the Shroud of Turin.
Why 1988 Shroud Carbon Dating results are wrong
In 2005 January 20 a paper was published in the professional journal, ‘Thermo Chimica Acta’ by Dr. Ray Rogers, a retired Scientist from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the lead chemist with the 1978 Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP) disputed the 1988 Carbon dating of the Shroud of Turin. He provided conclusive evidence that the samples for the 1988 shroud carbon dating tests was not part of the original shroud, but taken from an area of the Shroud that was repaired by being re-woven during the middle ages.
To quote from an article of Rogers: “Pyrolysis-mass-spectrometry results from the sample area coupled with microscopic and microchemical observations prove that the radiocarbon sample was not part of the original cloth of the Shroud of Turin. The radiocarbon date was thus not valid for determining the true age of the shroud.”
“As part of the Shroud of Turin research project (STURP), I took 32 adhesive-tape samples from all areas of the shroud and associated textiles in 1978.” “It enabled direct chemical testing on recovered linen fibers and particulates”.
“If the shroud had been produced between 1260 and 1390 AD, as indicated by the radiocarbon analyses, lignin should be easy to detect. A linen produced in 1260 AD would have retained about 37% of its vanillin in 1978… The Holland cloth, and all other medieval linens gave the test [i.e. tested positive] for vanillin wherever lignin could be observed on growth nodes. The disappearance of all traces of vanillin from the lignin in the shroud indicates a much older age than the radiocarbon laboratories reported.”
“The fire of 1532 could not have greatly affected the vanillin content of lignin in all parts of the shroud equally. The thermal conductivity of linen is very low… therefore, the unscorched parts of the folded cloth could not have become very hot.” “The cloth’s center would not have heated at all in the time available. The rapid change in color from black to white at the margins of the scorches illustrates this fact.” “Different amounts of vanillin would have been lost in different areas. No samples from any location on the shroud gave the vanillin test [i.e. tested positive].” “The lignin on shroud samples and on samples from the Dead Sea scrolls does not give the test [i.e. tests negative].”
“Because the shroud and other very old linens do not give the vanillin test [i.e. test negative], the cloth must be quite old.” “A determination of the kinetics of vanillin loss suggests that the shroud is between 1300- and 3000-years old. Even allowing for errors in the measurements and assumptions about storage conditions, the cloth is unlikely to be as young as 840 years.”
“A gum/dye/mordant [(for affixing dye)] coating is easy to observe on… radiocarbon [sample] yarns. No other part of the shroud shows such a coating.” “The radiocarbon sample had been dyed. Dyeing was probably done intentionally on pristine replacement material to match the color of the older, sepia-colored cloth.” “The dye found on the radiocarbon sample was not used in Europe before about 1291 AD and was not common until more than 100 years later.” “Specifically, the color and distribution of the coating implies that repairs were made at an unknown time with foreign linen dyed to match the older original material.” “The consequence of this conclusion is that the radiocarbon sample was not representative of the original cloth.”
“The combined evidence from chemical kinetics, analytical chemistry, cotton content, and pyrolysis-mass-spectrometry proves that the material from the radiocarbon area of the shroud is significantly different from that of the main cloth. The radiocarbon sample was thus not part of the original cloth and is invalid for determining the age of the shroud.”
New tests prove the Shroud Carbon dating wrong
Professor Gulio Fanti, of the University of Padua in Italy, has recently carried out some tests on fibers obtained from a reserve sample of a piece of the Shroud which was cut in 1988 for Carbon dating. Results of his tests date the Shroud of Turin to the 1st century AD.
The tests by Professor Gulio Fanti, were carried out in University of Padua laboratories in collaboration with professors from various Italian universities, led by Giulio Fanti and the results of these tests have been published in an articles entitled “Non-destructive dating of ancient flax textiles by means of vibrational spectroscopy” by Giulio Fanti, Pietro Baraldi, Roberto Basso, and Anna Tinti in the peer-reviewed research journal ‘Vibrational Spectroscopy’, in July 2013. He also wrote an article titled “A new cyclic-loads machine for the measurement of micro-mechanical properties of single flax fibers coming from the Turin Shroud” with Pierandrea Malfi for the AIMETA (Italian Association of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics) congress in 2013. Professor Gulio Fanti has also published a book in 2013 called “il Mistero della Sindone” (The Mystery of the Shroud).
The tests carried out by Professor Fanti comprised of three tests: one mechanical and two chemical. The mechanical tests were to measure and compare the tensile strength and elongation of several samples of individual linen fibers. The chemical tests were done with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, which examinined the relationship between age and a spectral properties of ancient linen fibers.
Final results of Professor Fanti’s research shows with 95% certainty that the Shroud fibers are from the first centaury AD.